which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

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Which of the following statement is/are true about characteristic properties of alkanes?

A. Boiling point increases with molecular mass
B. All alkane are saturated hydrocarbons.
C. They mostly show substitution reactions with halogens.
D. All of these
ANSWER:  Option (D) is correct as all the given statements about alkanes are correct.
which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?
which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

Chemical Properties of Alkanes

Alkanes are not very reactive when compared with other chemical species. This is because the backbone carbon atoms in alkanes have attained their octet of electrons through forming four covalent bonds (the maximum allowed number of bonds under the octet rule; which is why carbon’s valence number is 4). These four bonds formed by carbon in alkanes are sigma bonds, which are more stable than other types of bond because of the greater overlap of carbon’s atomic orbitals with neighboring atoms’ atomic orbitals. To make alkanes react, the input of additional energy is needed; either through heat or radiation.

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Gasoline is a mixture of the alkanes and unlike many chemicals, can be stored for long periods and transported without problem. It is only when ignited that it has enough energy to continue reacting. This property makes it difficult for alkanes to be converted into other types of organic molecules. (There are only a few ways to do this). Alkanes are also less dense than water, as one can observe, oil, an alkane, floats on water.

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Alkanes are non-polar solvents. Since only C and H atoms are present, alkanes are nonpolar. Alkanes are immiscible in water but freely miscible in other non-polar solvents. Alkanes consisting of weak dipole dipole bonds can not break the strong hydrogen bond between water molecules hence it is not miscible in water. The same character is also shown by alkenes. Because alkanes contain only carbon and hydrogen,

combustion produces compounds that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen.

Like other hydrocarbons, combustion under most circumstances produces mainly carbon dioxide and water.

However, alkanes require more heat to combust and do not release as much heat

when they combust as other classes of hydrocarbons. Therefore, combustion of alkanes produces

higher concentrations of organic compounds containing oxygen, such as aldehydes and ketones,

when combusting at the same temperature as other hydrocarbons.

The general formula for alkanes is CNH2N+2; the simplest possible alkane

is therefore methane, CH4. The next simplest is ethane, C2H6; the series continues indefinitely.

Each carbon atom in an alkane has sp³ hybridization.

which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?
which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

Alkanes are also known as paraffins, or collectively as the paraffin series. These terms are also used for alkanes whose carbon atoms form a single, unbranched chain. Branched-chain alkanes are called isoparaffins.

Methane through Butane are very flammable gases at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Pentane is an extremely flammable liquid boiling at 36 °C and boiling points and melting points steadily increase from there; octadecane is the first alkane

which is solid at room temperature. Longer alkanes are waxy solids; candle wax generally has between C20 and C25 chains. As chain length increases ultimately we reach polyethylene, which consists of carbon chains of indefinite length, which is generally a hard white solid.

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Why are alkanes called paraffin?

Paraffin is taken from the Latin language.

It is formed by two words parum meaning little and affinis meaning reactivity

because of their little affinity towards a general reagent.

We can say that alkanes are inert and undergo reactions under drastic conditions.

This happens because alkanes form only single bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms

which are relatively strong and difficult to break and also carbon and hydrogen have similar

electronegativities which give molecules that are nonpolar. Therefore,

they undergo limited reactions, undergo specific conditions only and are called paraffin.

which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?
which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?

How are alkanes named?

Alkanes are named by IUPAC norms. All alkanes have a common suffix ‘ane’ and the number of carbon atoms determines the name. The first 10 alkanes are given below:

  • C1 – methane
  • C2 – ethane
  • C3 – propane
  • C4 – butane
  • C5 – pendant
  • C6 – hexane
  • C7 – heptane
  • C8 – octane
  • C9 – nonane
  • C10 – decane

They are generally written as n-hexane, n-heptane etc. if they are normal chain alkanes but when the isomers of alkanes are written we use the prefixes iso and neo. When all carbons except one form a continuous chain we use iso and when all but two carbons which are a part of the terminal tert- butyl group form a continuous chain we use the prefix -neo.

which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?
which one of the following statements describes alkane properties correctly?
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