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The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of:
An easy-to-use form of energy, monosaccharides are produced during photosynthesis before being converted into more complex polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, or used as an energy source. Ordinary table sugar is sucrose, itself a disaccharide made of a single molecule each of glucose and fructose.
One of the most common sugars is glucose, which has a formula of answer to the question is d.this means that the correct
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Absorption of Monosaccharides
Absorption of glucose, galactose, and fructose occurs predominantly in the jejunum, which suggests that as these monosaccharides are generated by the brush-border carbohydrases, they are immediately absorbed into the enterocytes. This explains the similar distribution pattern of the brush-border enzymes and the absorptive sites along the small intestine (jejunum > ileum). The entry mechanisms for these 3 monosaccharides across the BBM are different from the exit mechanism across the BLM (Fig. 102.5A). Glucose and galactose are taken up by the enterocytes via an active transport process whereas fructose enters the cells by a passive, but facilitated mechanism. SGLT1, also known as SLC5A1, is responsible for active uptake of glucose as well as galactose from the intestinal lumen into the cells. This transporter accepts either glucose or galactose as the substrate but does not transport both monosaccharides at the same time in a given transport cycle.
The driving force for this active transport process comes from the electrochemical Na+ gradient present across the BBM. The Na+/K+ pump in the BLM maintains intracellular Na+ at low levels whereas the luminal contents have higher levels of Na+ originating from biliary, pancreatic, and intestinal secretions and also from the diet. The uptake of each monosaccharide via SGLT1 is coupled with the simultaneous transport of 2 Na+. As glucose and galactose are neutral molecules, their cotransport with 2 Na+ renders the transport process electrogenic, i.e., leading to depolarization of the membrane with a net transfer of 2 positive charges into the cell per transport cycle. Thus, the inwardly directed Na+ gradient as well as the inside-negative membrane potential that are present across the BBM provide the driving force for the active entry of glucose and galactose from the lumen into the absorptive cells of the small intestine.
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