place the following events of transcription in the correct order

place the following events of transcription in the correct order

place the following events of transcription in the correct order

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place the following events of transcription in the correct order
place the following events of transcription in the correct order

Question:

Which of the following steps of transcription are in the correct order?

A.) RNA polymerase binds a promoter, synthesis of RNA molecule, mRNA leaves the nucleus, removal of exons and splicing of introns

B.) RNA polymerase binds a promoter, synthesis of RNA molecule, removal of exons and splicing of introns, mRNA leaves the nucleus

C.) Synthesis of RNA molecule, mRNA leaves the nucleus, removal of exons and splicing of introns, RNA polymerase binds a promoter

D.) mRNA leaves the nucleus, RNA polymerase binds a promoter, synthesis of RNA molecule

Central Dogma:

The central dogma in biology refers to the flow of genetic instruction that ultimately converts into a product. The concept of the central dogma was proposed by Francis Crick in 1958. The central dogma includes:

  • Replication- formation of DNA from DNA molecules.
  • Transcription- formation of RNA from DNA molecules.
  • Translation- formation of protein from mRNA molecules.
  • Reverse transcription- formation of cDNA from RNA molecules.

Transcription is the synthesis of RNA molecules (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA) from DNA molecules by the RNA polymerase enzyme. During transcription, the RNA..

place the following events of transcription in the correct order
place the following events of transcription in the correct order

Steps of Transcription From DNA to RNA (events of transcription in the correct order)

A. mRNA
B. Transcription
C. Translation
D.DNA
E. Polypeptide

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the following events of transcription

Gene expression is the process whereby genetic information in the cell is used to produce proteins. This is referred to as the central dogma. Match the descriptions of the components of gene expression with the correct terms.
A. The molecule that carries information from the DNA specifying a polypeptide to ribosomes.
B. The synthesis of an RNA copy of a gene.
C. The synthesis of a specific sequence of amino acids on a ribosome.
D. A molecule found in the nucleus of cell that contains the cell’s genome.
E. A molecule made of amino acids that correspond to the genetic information in a structural gene.

place the following events of transcription in the correct order
place the following events of transcription in the correct order

Steps of Transcription in the correct order

Transcription can be broken into five stages: pre-initiation, initiation, promoter clearance, elongation, and termination:

the following events of transcription

01 Pre-Initiation

The first step of transcription is called pre-initiation. RNA polymerase and cofactors (general transcription factors) bind to DNA and unwind it, creating an initiation bubble. It’s similar in appearance to what you get when you unwind strands of multi-ply yarn. This space grants RNA polymerase access to a single strand of the DNA molecule. Approximately 14 base pairs are exposed at a time.

02 Initiation

The initiation of transcription in bacteria begins with the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter in DNA. Transcription initiation is more complex in eukaryotes, where a group of proteins called transcription factors mediates the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.

03 Promoter Clearance

The next step of transcription is called promoter clearance or promoter escape. RNA polymerase must clear the promoter once the first bond has been synthesized. The promoter is a DNA sequence that signals which DNA strand is transcribed and the direction transcription proceeds. Approximately 23 nucleotides must be synthesized before RNA polymerase loses its tendency to slip away and prematurely release the RNA transcript.

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04 Elongation

One strand of DNA serves as the template for RNA synthesis, but multiple rounds of transcription may occur so that many copies of a gene can be produced.

05 Termination

Termination is the final step of transcription. Termination results in the release of the newly synthesized mRNA from the elongation complex. In eukaryotes, the termination of transcription involves cleavage of the transcript, followed by a process called polyadenylation. In polyadenylation, a series of adenine residues or poly(A) tail is added to the new 3′ end of the messenger RNA strand.

place the following events of transcription in the correct order
place the following events of transcription in the correct order

What happens to the RNA transcript? (in the correct order)

After termination, transcription is finished. An RNA transcript that is ready to be used in translation is called a messenger RNA (mRNA). In bacteria, RNA transcripts are ready to be translated right after transcription. In fact, they’re actually ready a little sooner than that: translation may start while transcription is still going on!
so In the diagram below, mRNAs are being transcribed from several different genes. Although transcription is still in progress, ribosomes have attached each mRNA and begun to translate it into protein. When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a polyribosome.
Why can transcription and translation happen simultaneously for an mRNA in bacteria? One reason is that these processes occur in the same 5′ to 3′ direction. That means one can follow or “chase” another that’s still occurring. Also, in bacteria, there are no internal membrane compartments to separate transcription from translation.
The picture is different in the cells of humans and other eukaryotes. That’s because transcription happens in the nucleus of human cells, while translation happens in the cytosol. Also, in eukaryotes, RNA molecules need to go through special processing steps before translation. That means translation can’t start until transcription and RNA processing are fully finished.

What is the benefit of the coding strand if it doesn’t get transcribed and only the template strand gets transcribed?

Having 2 strands is essential in the DNA replication process, where both strands act as a template in creating a copy of the DNA and repairing damage to the DNA. Additionally the process of transcription is directional with the coding strand acting as the template strand for genes that are being transcribed the other way.
In the diagrams used in this article the RNA polymerase is moving from left to right with the bottom strand of DNA as the template. If the promoter orientated the RNA polymerase to go in the other direction, right to left, because it must move along the template from 3′ to 5′ then the top DNA strand would be the template.

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