difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides

difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides

difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides

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Main Difference – Monosaccharides vs Disaccharides vs Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates are the major components of all living organisms. All the carbohydrates are composed of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) atoms in different combinations. Sugars are carbohydrates. The major types of sugars include Monosaccharides and disaccharides. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates. The main difference between Monosaccharides Disaccharides and Polysaccharides is that monosaccharides are monomers of sugars and disaccharides are composed of two monomers whereas polysaccharides are composed of a large number of monomers.

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What is Monosaccharides?

The simplest form of carbohydrates are called monosaccharides which are “soluble, sweet-tasting” sugars. They are the monomer building blocks that join together for more complex carbohydrates. “Mono” refers to one and “saccharide” refers to sugars. They all have the formula of (CH2O)n, where n can be a number between 3 and 7. The molecular formulae for each type of sugar can there be worked out using the general formula (CH2O)n.

Within biological molecules individual units are known as monomers and monomers joined together in chains are known as polymers.

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The most common monosaccharide is known as glucose, a six-carbon sugar that has a formula of n=6; C6H12O6. In eukaryotic cells glucose plays an important role in the transport of sugars within the blood and is the main energy source in respiration. Glucose is in a ring form and has 2 isomers called α-glucose and beta-glucose and differ by the position of the hydroxyl (-OH) group . α-glucose is when the hydroxyl group is present below carbon number 1 in the sugar molecule and beta-glucose is where the hydroxyl group is present below the carbon atom.

difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides
difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides

Examples for Monosaccharides

  • Glyceraldehyde (3 carbon atoms)
  • Erythrose (4 carbon atoms)
  • Pentose (5 carbon atoms)
  • Glucose (6 carbon atoms)

What is a Disaccharide?

Disaccharides are sugar molecules composed of two monosaccharides. Therefore every disaccharide is composed of two chemical rings. The bond between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond. Disaccharides are also simple sugars. Disaccharides are classified into two groups according to their reducing strength.

  • Reducing sugars – can act as a reducing agent
  • Non-reducing sugars – cannot act as a reducing agent

Therefore, some disaccharides are reducing sugars and some are not. All disaccharides are water soluble and colorless when dissolved in water. Some disaccharides are sweet tasting but some are not.

 

Examples for Disaccharides and their Properties

Disaccharide Monomers Reducing strength Taste
Sucrose Glucose and Fructose Non-reducing Sweet
Lactose Glucose and Galactose Reducing Sweet
Maltose Two Glucose Reducing Sweet
difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides
difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides

What is the difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides? What are some examples of disaccharides and of monosaccharides that form them?

Monosaccharides are simple molecules of carbohydrates that cannot be broken into other carbohydrates.

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Glucose and fructose are examples of monosaccharides.

Disaccharides are carbohydrates made of two monosaccharides and with

the loss of one molecule of water dehydration.

The chemical bond between two monosaccharides is known as a glycosidic bond.

Sucrose table sugar is a disaccharide made by the union of one molecule of glucose with one molecule of fructose.

Maltose is a disaccharide made by two glucose molecules.

Lactose milk sugar is another disaccharide and it is created by the

union of one molecule of galactose with one molecule of glucose.

 

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