compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

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compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

Rocks are classified into three major classifications: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling of liquid lava or magma. A major subdivision of igneous rocks is how and where the rock forms. They can be classified as intrusive or extrusive. Intrusive rocks form within the Earth’s crust.  As a result, the magma cools relatively slowly and the grain of the rock is more coarse. Granite is an example of an intrusive igneous rock, formed deep within mountains. Extrusive rocks form on the exterior of the Earth’s crust. As a result, the lava cools more quickly and the grain of the rock is more fine. Basalt lava flows are an example of an extrusive igneous rock.

Differences Between Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks

Rocks form when mineral compounds react with heat, water or pressure. Intense heat that liquefies inside the Earth makes hot molten material called magma. Lava is magma that pushes up through the Earth’s crust to the surface. When magma and lava cool and harden, they create igneous rocks. These rocks may be extrusive or intrusive, depending on where the magma or lava crystallizes. Basalt is the most common extrusive rock while granite is a very common intrusive rock.

compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

Rock Formation

Extrusive rocks and intrusive rocks both form when hot molten material crystallizes. However, extrusive rocks form from lava at the surface of the Earth, whereas intrusive rocks form from magma underground, often relatively deep in the Earth. A pluton is a block of intrusive igneous rock. A large pluton may be a batholith or a stock while smaller plutons include dikes and sills. A dike is a penetrating intrusion that cuts across the geological layers. A sill is a penetrating intrusion that runs parallel to the layers. A laccolith is an intrusion that causes rocks above to rise in a dome shape.

Cooling Time

Extrusive rocks cool quickly because they are at the surface of the Earth. Intrusive rocks take a lot longer to cool because the temperature under the Earth’s surface is a lot higher. Extrusive rocks usually last much longer in the destructive environment at the earth’s surface because they formed there. Intrusive rocks typically break down quickly when exposed to the elements because it is not their natural habitat.

Crystal Size and Texture

The most obvious difference between extrusive rocks and intrusive rocks is crystal size. Because extrusive rocks cool quickly, they only have time to form very small crystals such as basalt or none at all. On the other hand, intrusive rocks grow larger crystals because they take longer to cool. Extrusive rocks are usually fine-grained or glassy while intrusive rocks are coarse-grained. Extrusive rocks may contain trapped bubbles of gas called vesicles.

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Mineral Proportions

You can break all igneous rocks into four main types, regardless of whether they are extrusive or intrusive rocks. They may be felsic, intermediate, mafic or ultramafic, depending on the ratio of light minerals to dark minerals. Felsic rocks, like rhyolite and granite, are high is silica, one of the most common elements on Earth. Intermediate rocks, like andesite/dacite and diorite/granodiorite, have a lower silica content and are darker than felsic rocks. Mafic rocks, like basalt and gabbro, have low silica content but contain iron and magnesium, Ultramafic rocks, like peridotite, contain very little silica and lots of iron and magnesium.

 

What Is The Difference Between Intrusive And Extrusive Igneous Rocks??

Extrusive rocks are formed on the surface of the Earth from lava, which is magma that has emerged from underground. Intrusive rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the planet. … If lava cools almost instantly, the rocks that form are glassy with no individual crystals, like obsidian.

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What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks ?

The difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous is that, intrusive rock is one that forms when magma cools within Earth. Extrusive igneous rock is one that, forms when lava cools on Earths surface.

How can you determine if an igneous rock is intrusive or extrusive origin?

The rocks with the larger crystals have an intrusive origin, while the rocks with smaller crystals have an extrusive origin.

What are the examples of intrusive igneous rocks?

Intrusive igneous rocks are rocks that crystallize below the earth’s surface resulting in large crystals as the cooling takes place slowly. Diorite, granite, pegmatite are examples of intrusive igneous rocks.

What are extrusive rocks and intrusive rocks quizlet?

Extrusive rocks form from volcanic eruptions above or at the Earth’s surface, and intrusive rocks cool and harden under the Earth’s surface.

Which is an extrusive igneous rock?

Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass. These rocks include: andesite, basalt, dacite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria, and tuff.

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compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

What are the similarities between intrusive and extrusive rocks?

Intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks are alike in that they are both formed from the cooling and crystallization of molten substance (magma and lava,…

What are the characteristics of intrusive igneous rocks?

Intrusive rocks are characterized by large crystal sizes, i.e., their visual appearance shows individual crystals interlocked together to form the rock mass. The cooling of magma deep in the Earth is typically much slower than the cooling process at the surface, so larger crystals can grow.

How are extrusive and intrusive rocks formed Class 7?

Extrusive rocks are formed by the molten lava which comes out of volcanoes, reaches the earth’s surface and cools down rapidly to become a solid piece of rock. For example, basalt. When the molten magma cools down deep inside the earth’s crust, the solid rocks so formed are called intrusive rocks.

What are the examples of extrusive rocks?

Types of extrusive igneous rocks include: pumice, obsidian, andesite, rhyolite, and basalt.

What are extrusive igneous rocks used for?

Explanation: Extrusive igneous rocks form when magma hardens above the earth’s surface. Examples of these include pumice and basalt. Pumice is used in toothpaste and cosmetic products, while basalt is used in the construction of statues and buildings.

Is gabbro extrusive or intrusive?

Gabbro (/ˈɡæb. roʊ/) is a phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rock formed from the slow cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich magma into a holocrystalline mass deep beneath the Earth’s surface. Slow-cooling, coarse-grained gabbro is chemically equivalent to rapid-cooling, fine-grained basalt.

What are the most common extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks?

When magma and lava cool and harden, they create igneous rocks. These rocks may be extrusive or intrusive, depending on where the magma or lava crystallizes. Basalt is the most common extrusive rock while granite is a very common intrusive rock.

How would you tell the difference between an intrusive sill and an extrusive lava flow?

An intrusive dike is an igneous body with a very high aspect ratio, which means that its thickness is usually much smaller than the other two dimensions. Thickness can vary from sub-centimeter scale to many meters, and the lateral dimensions can extend over many kilometres.

What is an intrusive igneous rock?

Intrusive, or plutonic, igneous rock forms when magma is trapped deep inside the Earth. … Intrusive rocks have a coarse grained texture. Extrusive Igneous Rocks: Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rock is produced when magma exits and cools above (or very near) the Earth’s surface.

Which is the extrusive igneous structure?

Extrusive igneous rock, also known as volcanic rock, is formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earth’s surface. … Basalt is the most common extrusive igneous rock and forms lava flows, lava sheets and lava plateaus. Some kinds of basalt solidify to form long polygonal columns.

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compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks

Is basalt an extrusive igneous rock?

Basalts are common aphanitic igneous extrusive (volcanic) rocks. Basalts are composed of minute grains of plagioclase feldspar (generally labradorite), pyroxene, olivine, biotite, hornblende and <20% quartz.

Why are fossils never found in igneous rocks?

Igneous rocks do not contain any fossils. This is because any fossils in the original rock will have melted when the rock melted to form magma.

What is the difference between an intrusion and an extrusion?

An intrusion is any body of intrusive igneous rock, formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the planet. In contrast, an extrusion consists of extrusive rock, formed above the surface of the crust.

How do Petrologists use grain size to tell the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?

How do petrologists use grain size to tell the different between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks? Intrusive igneous rocks are often large grain size; Extrusive are often small grain size. Describe the three general types of coarse-grained igneous rocks.

What are the characteristics of intrusive and extrusive rocks?

Summary
  • Intrusive igneous rocks cool from magma slowly in the crust. They have large crystals.
  • Extrusive igneous rocks cool from lava rapidly at the surface. They have small crystals.
  • Texture reflects how an igneous rock formed.

What are extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks describe their salient features?

Intrusive igneous rocks cool from magma slowly because they are buried beneath the surface, so they have large crystals. Extrusive igneous rocks cool from lava rapidly because they form at the surface, so they have small crystals. Texture reflects how an igneous rock formed.

Are extrusive rocks coarse grained?

Extrusive or volcanic rocks crystallize from lava at the earth’s surface. … Magmas and their resultant plutonic rock bodies cool and crystallize slowly and are characterized by coarse-grained texture, in which the mineral crystals are visible to the unaided eye.

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